Friction loss

Cavitations

Static head

Loss of kinetic energy

D. Loss of kinetic energy

Impulse turbines

Reaction turbines

Axial flow turbines

Mixed flow turbines

(1 + cos φ)/2

(1 - cos φ)/2

(1 + sin φ)/2

(1 - sin φ)/2

Two jets

Two runners

Four jets

Four runners

Centrifugal pump

Reciprocating pump

Jet pump

Air lift pump

Girad turbine

Turgo turbine

Pelton wheel

Kaplan turbine

Radial

Axial

Centrifugal

Vortex

Tangential flow impulse turbine

Inward flow impulse turbine

Outward flow impulse turbine

Inward flow reaction turbine

Directly as fan speed

Square of fan speed

Cube of fan speed

Square root of fan speed

The water flows parallel to the axis of the wheel

The water enters at the centre of the wheel and then flows towards the outer periphery of the wheel

The water enters the wheel at the outer periphery and then flows towards the centre of the wheel

The flow of water is partly radial and partly axial

Directly as the air or gas density

Inversely as square root of density

Inversely as density

As square of density

39.2 %

49.2 %

68.8 %

84.8 %

0.26

0.36

0.46

0.56

Geometric similarity

Kinematic similarity

Dynamic similarity

None of these

Closed

Open

Depends on starting condition and flow desired

Could be either open or closed

Horizontal

Nearly horizontal

Steep

First rise and then fall

2 to 4

4 to 8

8 to 16

16 to 24

Kinetic head

Velocity head

Manometric head

Static head

Centrifugal pump

Reciprocating pump

Jet pump

Air lift pump

^{1/2}

^{1/2}

^{3/2}

^{3/2}

N/√H

N/H

^{3/2}

N/H²

Ratio of the actual power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied by the turbine

Ratio of the actual work available at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel

Ratio of the Work done on the wheel to the energy of the jet

None of the above

Hydraulic

Mechanical

Overall

None of these

Directly as the air or gas density

Inversely as square root of density

Inversely as density

As square of density

_{m}) / (Q × η_{o})

_{m} Q) / η_{o}

_{m} × η_{o})

_{o}) / H_{m}

Installing the turbine below the tail race level

Using stainless steel runner of the turbine

Providing highly polished blades to the runner

All of the above

Ratio of actual discharge to the theoretical discharge

Sum of actual discharge and the theoretical discharge

Difference of theoretical discharge and the actual discharge

Product of theoretical discharge and the actual discharge

High discharge

High head

Pumping of viscous fluids

High head and high discharge

Pelton wheel

Francis turbine

Kaplan turbine

None of these

0 to 4.5

10 to 100

80 to 200

250 to 300

No flow will take place

Cavitation will be formed

Efficiency will be low

Excessive power will be consumed