Where do Randall plaques originate from?

A. transitional epithelium lining minor calyces

B. transitional epithelium lining major calyces

C. basement membrane of the loops of Henle

D. papillary tips of polar pyramids

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  1. Invasive intervention in stone patients is NOT indicated in the following condition:
  2. What is the preferred entry point into the collecting system for PCNL for a 2.4 cm renal pelvis stone?
  3. What is the composition of brushite stones?
  4. What is true regarding a stone in a urethral diverticulum?
  5. What parameter is NOT considered in the stone burden concept?
  6. What risk factor(s) promote(s) stone formation?
  7. What is the most common organism that might complicate PCNL?
  8. What is the preferred irrigation fluid during PCNL?
  9. What is the sure diagnostic finding of Ca.oxalate stones?
  10. What could high dietary protein result in?
  11. Which of the following is a relative contra-indication to ESWL?
  12. What stones are radiopaque on plain X-ray film?
  13. What is false concerning primary bladder stones?
  14. What is (are) true concerning ESWL?
  15. What is true regarding DJ ureteral stents?
  16. What is false regarding hypomagnesuric calcium nephrolithiasis?
  17. Which of the following dietary advice is recommended for Ca.oxalate stone formers?
  18. What type of stones do laxative abusers might develop?
  19. Which event is unlikely to occur after placing a DJ ureteral stent?
  20. What could high level of sulfate in 24-hr. urine collection mean?
  21. What could carry the least risk of colon injury during PCNL?
  22. What is true regarding prostatic stones?
  23. Why do patients with cystic fibrosis form stones?
  24. What is the least serious complications of PCNL?
  25. Ureteral stones of ≥ 7 mm:
  26. What is the first-line treatment of kidney stones of a burden greater than 2 cm?
  27. What is true concerning the use of intravenous fluids in renal colic cases?
  28. What is a remarkable disadvantage of ultrasonic imaging for ESWL?
  29. How does oral Mg.citrate inhibit Ca.oxalate stone formation?
  30. What are the expected findings on urinalysis in patients with acute renal colic?