Volumetric stress and volumetric strain

Lateral stress and lateral strain

Longitudinal stress and longitudinal strain

Shear stress to shear strain

C. Longitudinal stress and longitudinal strain

8.314 J/kg mole-K

83.14 J/kgmole-K

831.4 J/kgmole-K

8314 J/kgmole-K

Soft coal

Hard coal

Pulverised coal

Bituminous coal

p.v = constant, if T is kept constant

v/T = constant, if p is kept constant

p/T = constant, if v is kept constant

T/p = constant, if v is kept constant

Measure shear strain

Measure linear strain

Measure volumetric strain

Relieve strain

3p/E × (2/m - 1)

3p/E × (2 - m)

3p/E × (1 - 2/m)

E/3p × (2/m - 1)

Short column

Long column

Weak column

Medium column

1 N-m

1 kN-m

10 N-m/s

10 kN-m/s

Zeroth law of thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics

Kelvin Planck's law

πd²/4

πd²/16

^{3}/16

^{3}/32

Otto cycle is more efficient than Diesel cycle

Diesel cycle is more efficient than Otto cycle

Dual cycle is more efficient than Otto and Diesel cycles

Dual cycle is less efficient than Otto and Diesel cycles

It does not exist

It is more sensitive to changes in both metallurgical and mechanical conditions

It gives a more accurate picture of the ductility

It can be correlated with stress strain values in other tests like torsion, impact, combined stress tests etc.

Mild steel

Cast iron

Concrete

Bone of these

Principal stress

Tensile stress

Compressive stress

Shear stress

Boyle's law

Charles' law

Gay-Lussac law

Avogadro's law

Two constant volume and two isentropic

Two constant pressure and two isentropic

Two constant volume and two isothermal

One constant pressure, one constant volume and two isentropic

_{t}

_{c}

_{t}

_{c}

Axis of load

Perpendicular to the axis of load

Maximum moment of inertia

Minimum moment of inertia

Not deform

Be safest

Stretch

Not stretch

Two isothermal and two isentropic

Two isentropic and two constant volumes

Two isentropic, one constant volume and one constant pressure

Two isentropic and two constant pressures

l/8

l/4

l/2

l

Same

Lower

Higher

None of these

Of same magnitude as that of bar and applied at the lower end

Half the weight of bar applied at lower end

Half of the square of weight of bar applied at lower end

One fourth of weight of bar applied at lower end

Isothermally

Isentropically

Polytropically

None of these

kJ

kJ/kg

^{2}

^{3}

11/7

9/7

4/7

All of the above

400 MPa

500 MPa

900 MPa

1400 MPa

_{2}/p_{1})γ - 1/ γ

_{1}/p_{2})γ - 1/ γ

_{2}/v_{1})γ - 1/ γ

_{1}/v_{2})γ - 1/ γ

τ²/ 2G × Volume of shaft

τ/ 2G × Volume of shaft

τ²/ 4G × Volume of shaft

τ/ 4G × Volume of shaft

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

Principal stresses

Normal stresses on planes at 45°

Shear stresses on planes at 45°

Normal and shear stresses on a plane